Saturday, April 4, 2020
If not for all of them my assignment wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been a success. Kevin De Silva Executive Summary This assignment gives an exhaustive analysis focusing mainly on the business environment on one of the most leading companies in the communication industry of Sri Lanka. It is also the national telecommunication service provider of the country, Sri Lanka Telecom PLC. Task one gives an in-depth analysis of what the organization is, on what corner stoneÃ¢â¬â¢s it is built on, what it is now, and its purpose of existence, based on their norms, beliefs and traditions. Such as their vision, mission, aims, goals, market share and market growth. It also shows the relationship between the organization and its stakeholders, considering the expectations of the stakeholders, and the responsibility the organization has towards them. Task two (part one), explains the market types that are available in the industry, and in which market type SLT operates in. We will write a custom essay sample on Business Environment of Sri Lanka Telecom Plc or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It also shows the demand in the total industry versus the supply of SLT showing how much of the market is being served and satisfied by them. The reasons for their success in being the number one service provider is identified through their level of innovation, technology and research and development, and is also shown how it is linked in operating in the global arena and the global impact of the organization, the markets they are targeting and how they are planning to enter those emerging markets. At the end of these two tasks we will have a very good understanding on the business environment of Sri Lanka Telecom PLC. Task two (part two), with related to the previous tasks have a more generalized approach. It speaks about two main instruments in the economy the monetary and fiscal policy. This is then related to Sri Lanka and United Kingdom by showing the similarities and differences in the execution of these policies. It then shows the effects of these economic policies on the communication industry, by showing how it affects the sales and production. The tax trend of the organization and reasons for the trend are also shown. All these information will be presented briefly and clearly in a single page poster. Task two (part three), is a presentation on the key economic factors of Mexico. The slides of the presentation are attached. California Management Review. 1983. Stockholders and Stakeholders: A new perspective on Corporate Governance. ) Diagram 3 Ã¢â¬â Categorization of Stakeholders Ã¢â¬Å"We have thus enhanced value with each of our stakeholder segments Ã¢â¬â shareholders, customers, employees, investors, suppliers, regulatory and other related state authorities, the media, the community and in the larger context, the State. Ã¢â¬ (Sri Lanka Telecom. 2011. Sustainability Report: 2010. Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Telecom. ) 3. 2 Employees Employees are those who keep the organization in operation, while expecting salaries and wages in return, along with job security and job satisfaction. They have the power to influence the quality of the service of the organization. SLT has a labour force of 6,297 as of June 2011. (TRCSL. 13/10/2011. Telecommunication Regulatory Commission of Sri Lanka: Statistics 2011 June. [Online]. Available: http://www. trc. gov. lk/information/statistics. html. [27/12/2011]. ) 3. 3 Shareholders Shareholders are those who invest in the organization expecting higher dividends. They have the power to elect the directors of the organization. Shareholders of SLT are as follows, * Government of Sri Lanka which holds 52% * Global Telecommunication Holdings N. V. of Netherlands 44. 98% * Public 3. 02% 3. 4 Customers Customers are the key stakeholders of any organization, if not for customers the organization wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. They expect value for money and good services, and they have the power to influence the revenue of the business. SLTÃ¢â¬â¢s customer base is over 5. 5million. Ã¢â¬Å"The SLT Group has a customer base of over five and a half million including multinational corporations, large and small corporate, retail and domestic customersÃ¢â¬ (Sri Lanka Telecom. 2011. Management Report: 2010. Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Telecom. ) 3. 5 Suppliers Suppliers are those who supply all the raw materials for an organization to function. In the case of SLT it could be electronic equipment and accessories that aid the telecommunication industry. The suppliers influence the quality, price and availability of the products, and they expect prompt payments and long term contracts. Some of the suppliers for SLT are ZTE Corporation China and other suppliers from Thailand. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦. while related team members visited the equipment supplier in Thailand for more in depth skill developmentÃ¢â¬ (Sri Lanka Telecom. 2011. Management Report: 2010. Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Telecom. ) 3. 6 Government Diversify our portfolio of products and services and diversify our business through new innovative business models, sustainable partnerships. (Sri Lanka Telecom. 2011. Management Report: 2010. Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Telecom. ) 4. 5 Market Share Fixed and Mobile Broadband Ã¢â¬â Total Market Share Diagram 4 Ã¢â¬â Total Market Share (Fixed and Mobile Broadband) Fixed Line Ã¢â¬â Total Market Share Diagram 5 Ã¢â¬â Total Market Share (Fixed Line) (Sri Lanka Telecom. 2011. Annual Report: 2010,2009,2008,2007,2006. Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Telecom. ) 4. 6 Growth of Market Share
Sunday, March 8, 2020
The Assassinations of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi essays Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr. posed challenges to segregation and racial discrimination in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s through non- violent and peaceful moves and put across his message to the white Americans to help support the cause of the civil rights. After his assassination in 1968 at the prime time of his civil rights movement, King became a symbol of protest in the blacks' struggle for Early Life King was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. His father served as pastor of a large Atlanta church, Ebenezer Baptist. King Jr. was ordained as a Baptist minister at the age of 18. (Badger) King attended local segregated public schools and graduated with a bachelor's degree in sociology from Morehouse College in 1948. He graduated with honors from Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania in 1951. He earned a doctoral degree in systematic theology from Boston University. King was exposed to influences that related Christian theology to the struggles of oppressed peoples throughout his academic career. He also studied the teachings on non-violent movement of Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi. Benjamin E. Mays, a leader in the national community of racially liberal clergymen, played a key role in shaping King's theological In 1954 King accepted his first pastorate at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Civil Rights Movement King became one of the founders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957 and also became its President. SCLC was an organization of black churches and ministers that opposed racial segregation. The SCLC supported the NAACP's legal efforts to put an end to segregation through the courts with nonviolent direct action to protest racial discrimination. These activities included marches, demonstrations, and boycotts. The direct ...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Indigenous People of Australia. Does Australia Need a Treaty - Essay Example Furthermore, the paper also describes Victorian Charter and what it means for the indigenous people. Australia lacks a formal treaty with its indigenous and non-indigenous people which have been a goal for all councils that are planning to give human rights to these people. However, little or no concerns have been shown by the governing bodies of how the treaty should be accommodated with the constitution of Australia to protect the rights of indigenous and non-indigenous people (Broome, 2010). Aborigines, Torres Strait Islanders and other indigenous groups in Australia are the original dwellers of the Australian continent that has been living since 50,000 years. Great diversity is found between different communities in Australia which have different culture altogether. They have different languages and customs and are further divided into local communities that have more diversity in its form. But when the European settlement took place, they did not consider the rights of people th at were originally the inhabitants of the country (Bartlett, 2002). Many people suggest that it would be unwise to form a treaty between aboriginal people because of their demands that would unlikely to be fulfilled. The indigenous people of Australia launched a book entitled Ã¢â¬ËTreaty: LetÃ¢â¬â¢s get it rightÃ¢â¬â¢ which was targeted at white people living in Australia and were trying to persuade them they need more than a treaty and reconciliation. The Aborigines have claimed to form a State which is ruled by their community setting up as a Ã¢â¬ËBlack StateÃ¢â¬â¢ (Windschuttle, 2001). The book represented that they wanted to negotiate for the self government which seemed impossible for government to fulfil their demands. In Aboriginal politics, the people have always claimed for a separate nation but the main focus of their demand is the sovereignty of indigenous people. Many scholars do not agree with Aboriginal ideology because the whites have now outnumbered the ind igenous people communities and now they have the right to rule in the country. The demands have forced many legal problems in the country (Hinton et al., 2008). Australia has never had a formal agreement on the treaty of indigenous people because Aboriginal have always been portrayed in the light of having no civilized pattern of living or government. The history has shown one sided relationship without covering the story of Aboriginals. They were termed as native savages by misleading people and make bad impressions in the mind of white people which developed hatred amongst them without realizing the truth. Indigenous people were completely overlooked by Australian justice and they did not consider them as relevant parties to compete with their rights. A treaty would eventually recognize and protect their rights that would lead to prosperous Australia (Langton, 2006). A treaty would be a final settlement between indigenous and non-indigenous people of Australia which would make thi ngs calm and would not give rise to civil war. The treaty is the best way for Aboriginal people to advance their cause for their freedom but before that a preliminary policy is needed that could give basic rights to indigenous people. The treaty is the central vision of Aboriginal people and it is an opportunity for them to brighten their future. These people would very far to achieve their vision which they have written many years before. It would
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Function of afterlife - Essay Example Written in the form of interviews conducted from the famous souls had already departed from the world, the author has given the message that the individuals leading a life in service of humanity in one way or the other would be in peace and under the blessings of the Lord in heavens. On the contrary, the persons, who had inflicted the pains and sufferings upon the fellow humans, are sure to undergo punishments in inferno in afterlife (31). As a result, the individuals including Shakespeare, Edison, Pasteur and others, would be blessed against their wonderful contributions carried out in the field of art, medicine, literature and others. Similarly, the despotic rulers, evil-minded politicians, pagans and purported dogmatists would have to undergo the wrath of Lord for their wickedness and misdeeds (48). Hence, if the individuals give up and forget believing in the messages and lessons manifestly mentioned in the Holy Scriptures that humans are not responsible to anyone after death, ev eryone will start inflicting harms, hurt and throbbing pains upon others (67). On the contrary, strong faith in God as well as His system, based upon justice, truth and benevolence, teaches the humans to be kind, sympathetic and compassionate towards others. Consequently, the author has conveyed the universal message of love and benevolence through his under-investigation work, which urges the readers to observe chastity, mercifulness and compassion towards one
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Censor Restrictions In Indian Cinema The boundary within which artistic liberty swings has, historically, remained a debatable issue. Liberal democracies all over the world have recognised the need for reasonable restriction, though its boundaries are yet to be settled. In India cinema censorship appeared as an inevitable response to growing obscenity, restraint on the public morale being necessary for socio-cultural and political reasons. However, obscenity and lewdness having varying interpretations, censor decisions have remained a contentious issue. All efforts including judicial pronouncements, expert committee recommendations and periodic review of the censorship guidelines have fall short of settling the issue. The ongoing digital communication technology revolution has prompted a fresh debate on the relevance of cinema censorship in India. This paper attempts to review the legal and philosophical foundations of the concept to identify the reasonable limits of artistic expression in India, in the context of chang ing pubic moral and social patterns, and the ongoing digital communication technology revolutions. Introduction A gloss over the existing literature on cinema revels that censorship debate continues ever since cinemas emergence as a major mass entertainment industry, of course, the issue of contention keeps on changing. The battle over it is often fought as petty-bickering and yet at other times in terms of angry public furor at the overt or covert sexual obscenities. Though the polemics of Indian film censorship generally revolved round sleaze, sensuality, sexuality, nudity and permissiveness (Bhowmik, 2003:3148), excessive depiction of obscenity and lewdness is primarily seen as the reason for censorship becoming inevitable in India- restraint on the public moral being necessary for socio-cultural, political, national security reasons. But, obscenity being perceptual and having different nuances of meanings for different segments of age and populations, the CBFCs decisions were often questioned, making it a debatable issue. The era of censor restriction began in British India when the film Bhakta Vidura (1921) was banned because its protagonist bore a strong resemblance to Mahatma Gandhi. In 1978, the Central Board of Film Censor (renamed Central Board of Film Certification in 1982) referred to the political film KISSA KURSI KA(The Tale of a Chair), an innuendo about the politicians) to the Information Broadcasting Ministry for further clearance. This was eventually destroyed only to be remade and released latter. In 1981, the film MERI AWAZ SUNO (Please Listen to My Voice), about a policeman who infiltrates an underworld gang to discover its nexus with politicians, was first granted an A certificate, but subsequently suspended under the Cinematograph act, 1952 citing that the film depicted excessive violence. In 1994, the film BANDIT QUEEN, based on the life history of Phoolon Devi-a dalit woman turned bandit was recommended for 17 cuts by the Central Board of Film Certification(CBFC). The film was released with just one visual and one audio cut after court intervention. In the film KAMA SUTRA- A TALE of LOVE (1996), which sought to demonstrate the marriage of spirituality and sexuality through the story of a princess and her servant, was denied a certificate citing it pornographic; it was certified after two scenes of nudity were erased. The film FIRE (1998), which explicitly screened the relationship of two women, who found the poignant expression of their love in their lesbian relationship, was cleared for public exhibition by the Censor Board but, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting referred it back to the Censor Board for review due to violent protest against the film in parts of India. In 2002,the CBFC demanded several deletions from the anti-war and anti-nuclear documentar y film Jung-aur-aman (War and Peace) as a pre-condition for granting certificate, only to be certified without any deletion after the Bombay High Court directed the CBFC to do so (TOI,2003:April 26). As the censors claimed, the film suggested a bias against the Muslims minority when aid was distributed after the Gujrat earth quake 2001. The list of such films touched by censorship issues in India gets longer even as the country emerges as the most prolific film producing country in the world (TOI,2002: July 28). At times the issue is excessive violence (Aakrosh, 2003), at others it is kissing on screen (Khwaish), even at others it is smoking on screen (God Mother, 1999, Pyar -To-Hona Hi Tha). The era of protest against restriction on cinema is as old as the restriction itself. But the restriction continues and is expected to continue, of course, efforts have been made to ease the tensions out. The recent ICT revolutions, especially the wider availability of digital duplicating technologies and the wider scope for their circulation through the networked technologies have raised afresh questions on the relevance of the censor mechanism in India. But, despite the growing justifications against its continuation, the justifications for censorship is found in the argument that Indian society constitutes of people with a divergent social outlook and the response to cinema censorship must be defined by the divergent socio- political and cultural parameters of the country (Dayal, 1987). But, every new case of censorship dispute renews demands for abolition of the Censor Board and the practice of film censorship in India. The Indian Supreme Court and High Courts have adjudicated on the matter, expert committees have recommended solutions, the government has issued revised guidelines from time to time, but still the issue remains unsettled. Even public opinion on the issue is intricate and dichotomous. Despite the county having well formulated obscenity laws for over a century, the question still remains: is censorship necessary? This paper attempts to explore the philosophical foundations of the right to artistic expression and its reasonable limits with special reference to film censorship in India in the context of the ongoing digital communication technology revolution, emerging patterns of Indian society and the changing profile of Indian audiences. The specific objectives of the study are: To examine the legal and philosophical foundations of media freedom, to identify its limits and explore the grounds for censor restriction. To explore the impacts of films and the scope for their positive use for social transformation and development. To make an assessment of the role and functioning of the Censor Board with regard to public perception and expectation in the context of the emerging digital communication technology environment; and To analyze public perception to find out the potential to make the Indian cinema censorship practices more effective and acceptable. Background of the Study Historically, censorship as a term in English goes back to the office of the censor established in ancient Rome. The censor was one of two magistrates of early Rome who acted as the census authority, and inspectors of moral who regulated the morals of the citizens, (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012). Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary defines Censor, to be a person who is authorized to read publications or correspondence or to watch theatrical performances and suppress in whole or in part anything considered obscene or politically unacceptable. As a practice, censorship is the control of what people may say or hear, write or read, or see or do, and suppression of material considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient to the government or the citizen groups. The materials which are included within the scope of censorship commonly includes nudity, sexual activity, language, presentation of criminal acts, violence messages considered to be immoral in the context of a society. Traditionally censorship was associated with ideas about state oppression, intolerant governments or other powerful institutions controlling the minds of powerless citizens and societys dominated classes (Biltereyst, 2010). It was related to brutal strategies to limit freedom of speech, or to undermine artistic expression. It was even seen as part of a carefully orchestrated strategy of controlling or even silencing public debate in society. With the universal recognition of human rights and the right to communicate as a vital component, the exercise of film censorship in modern times is seen as violating the sanctity of the constitutionally granted freedom of speech and expression in liberal democracies (Kazmi,2001), and is mostly regarded as a relic of an unenlightened and much more oppressive age and hardly finds any favour among elite sections of a society. Daniel Biltereyst of the Centre for Cinema and Media Studies claim that censorship is more complex and constitutes more than simply banning, cutting and imposing restrictions from above by state institutions. This revelation is based on a broader definition of censorship and new theoretical underpinnings of the concept. New approaches argue that the state does not wield absolute power, and also that censorship institutions are not disconnected from society but are run by flesh-and-blood people with their own sensitivities, norms and values. This includes the existence of negotiations between the censors, the industry and film makers (Biltereyst, 2008). This new approach to censorship shifted the focus from the old institutionalized, interventionist censorship to a more culturalist notion of film censorship (Biltereyst, 2010). From this perspective, censorship was gradually accepted as a keen and sharp indicator of what a particular hegemonic group in society can tolerate at a particular moment. The wider social and cultural ideologies determining hegemonic groups activities present the framework for negotiation between industry, filmmakers, censors and their respective discourses, to achieve some form of consensus on the acceptability of certain images, scenes or films. This negotiation process makes it rather unlikely that film classification boards would take decisions going completely against societal sensitivities. The censor negotiations combine historical, sociological, aesthetic, and philosophical parameters and vacillate between the two extremes of the liberty of artistic expression and the moral responsibilities of audiovi sual representations. Reflecting the views of a section of the film industry Bhowmik claims that trends on censorship practice violates the sanctity of the constitutionally granted freedom of speech and expression Disagreeing with the popular notion of censorship as moral restraint, he argues that its true import lies in the propagation of political agendas, there being intricate interplay of policies of governance and strictures of censorship. It is claimed that bureaucratic manipulation, judicial laxity, vested interest and political or public pressure keep the institution of film censorship going in India (Bhowmik (2003:3149). Cinema can play a positive role in society in terms of providing entertainment, enhancing information and knowledge, sensitizing people about urgent issues of society, in creating sociability and offering catharsis (Bhakhry, 1995:71). Similarly, cinema can also play an equally negative role in teaching wrong values, generating social and sexual violence and crime, providing escape from reality into a dream world instead of facing up to the problems of life, encouraging adoption of destructive role models and in encouraging cynicism about social institutions (Bhakhry, 1995:71. It is these impacts of cinema on society which makes censorship an important issue and justifies the efforts put into this study. Genesis of Censor Restriction in Indian Cinema The institution of censorship in Indian cinema took roots soon after the birth of the indigenous film industry. The Indian Cinematograph Act of 1918 was enacted by the British government in India with the avowed aim of safety of the audiences, and the prevention of degrading of moral performances, though the real intentions, as was often alleged, were to pre-empt political issues perceived as threats to the British Raj in India (Bhowmik, 2003:3149).Regional Censor Boards were constituted at Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Rangoon, and Lahore in 1920, to put a check, as was claimed, on sensitive issues, objectionable subjects, and forbidden scenes in foreign films. The first instances of censorship took place soon after the setting up of these regional censor boards when the 1921 film Bhakta Vidura was banned alleging that its protagonist bore a strong resemblance to Mahatma Gandhi. Following Indian independence, the Indian Cinematograph Act of 1918 was carried forward by the Indian leadership essentially as an attempt to cleanse or control the harmful western influence through the medium of film entertainment. The Indian leadership publicly stated that the sanctity of the well received principles of morality and behaviour would be invoked in matters relating to exhibition of films in the country(Bhowmik,2003: July 26). They emphasized the need for improvement in the moral and ethical standards in films. In 1951, all regional censor boards were brought under the unified command of a Central Board of Film Censors. The Indian Cinematograph Act 1918 was replaced by the Indian Cinematograph Act 1952, which was amended in 1982 and new censorship guidelines were issued in 1983. The law provides for appointment of a Central Board of Film Certification to certify films for public exhibition in India which functions with headquarters at Mumbai assisted by nine regional offices at Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Chennai, Thiruvananthpuram, New Delhi, Cuttack and Guwahati. The law and the guidelines provide for appointment of the Board, their functioning and the issues to be considered while certifying a cinema for public exhibition in India. A Film certification Appellate Tribunal was established in 1984 at Delhi to hear appeals against the decisions of the CBFC. In the years that followed Indian independence, film censorship continues to vacillate between the two extremes of the growing right to freedom of expression view and public decency defined by group perceptions and interests. The then minister of information and broadcasting R.R. Diwakar characterized the newly framed CBFC as a dignified effort to model an effective medium of healthy entertainment, national culture, and mass education (Hunnings, 1967:228). The main objectives of film censorship, as per the certification guidelines, have been to ensure that The medium of film remains responsible and responsive to the values and standards of society; Artistic expression and creative freedom are not unduly curbed; and Censorship is responsive to social changes. As provided in the Indian Cinematograph Act 1952 including its subsequent amendments , films are certified relying on the judgment of examining and revising committees and are issued any of the following four types of certificates -U, UL. A, and S, as has been provided under the Indian Cinemagraph Act.1952. U (unrestricted exhibition) certificate is issued to a cinema which, in the opinion of the CBFC, is suitable for unrestricted public exhibition. UA (unrestricted public exhibition subject to parental guidance for children below the age of 12) certification is issued to a film in respect of which the board is of the opinion that it is necessary to caution that the question as to whether any child below the age of 12 may be allowed to see such film should be considered by the parents or guardians of such child. A (public exhibition restricted to adults only) certificate is issued to a cinema if in the opinion of the board its public exhibition is to be restricted to adults only. S'(public exhibition restricted to specialized audiences) certification of a cinema means the cinema is suitable for public exhibition restricted to members of a profession, for example Doctors. The CBFC is assisted in examination of films by members of Advisory Panels and Examining Committees, and issues certificates as suggested. The board examines films for certification in accordance with provisions contained in the Cinematograph Act, 1952, the Cinematography (Certification) Rules, 1983 and the guidelines issued in this regard by the government of India from time to time. While considering a cinema for certification as mentioned above, the CBFC may direct to delete or amend material that might be considered to be offensive by its audiences or may even refuse to allow a film to be screened commercially. The Film Certification Appellate Tribunal (FCAT) hears appeals against the decisions of the Censor Board in respect of certification of a film. The decisions of the tribunal are binding on the board and it disposes the matter in conformity with the order of the tribunal. Under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act, 1952 the Central Government is also empowered to send back a film for review by the Censor Board or to cancel or modify a certificate issued to a film under certain circumstances. Petitions can be filed in High Courts seeking a ban on screening of a film. IV. Artistic Freedom and its Limits Article 19(1) (a) of the Indian Constitution Guarantees to every citizen of India the right to freedom of speech and expression; also assures the freedom of media, though it is not separately stated there, unlike some other constitutions like that of the USA. The freedom of media is part of a larger right of freedom of speech and expression guaranteed to every citizen. The right to freedom of speech and expression includes within it, the right to collect and receive information from anywhere and through any legitimate means, the right to disseminate information and express opinion (Sawant, 1997). The freedom granted under 19(1) (a) is not absolute, and is subject to restrictions recognized by all liberal democracies as well as by international declarations and covenants. These restrictions are contained in Article 19(2) of the Indian Constitution, which states that freedom of speech and expression guaranteed by article 19(1)(a) shall not affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the state from making any law, which imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the freedom in the interests of sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the state, friendly relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence. The restrictions have, of course to be reasonable meaning there by that; they must have a direct nexus with the ground on which they are imposed (Sawant, 1997). They should also not be in excess of the purpose sought to be achieved or supplant the freedom itself . Again, the media, when run as a business, is also subject to the restrictions, which may be imposed by the state on any business, under Article 19(6) of the constitution. The principles of the censorship set out in section 5-B of the Cinematograph (Amendment) Act, 1959 states: A film shall not be certified for public exhibition if, in the opinion of the authority competent to grant the certificate the film or any part of it against the interests of security of the state, public order, decency or morality, or involves defamation or contempt of court, or is likely to incite the commission of an offence. This sub section is in agreement with article 19(2) of the constitution. Sub-section (2) of section 5-B states, Subject to the conditions contained in sub-section -1, the central government may issue such directions as it may think fit, setting out the principles which shall guide the authority competent to grant certificate under this act in sanctioning films for public exhibition. In a celebrated Supreme Court judgment in 1970, in the case brought before it by K.A. Abbas, regarding his film A Tale of Four Cities declared that, censorship falls under constitutional guarantee of freedom of speech and expression and that while pre censorship of films does not contravene those guarantees per se, is still a justifiable issue and cannot be decided by a government official (Dayal, 1987). The Supreme Court has indicated that , Censorship in India (and pre-censorship is not different in quality) has full justification in the field of exhibition of cinema films and the censorship imposed on the making and exhibition of films is in the interest of the society. If the regulations venture into something, which goes beyond the legitimate opening to restrictions, they can be questioned on the ground that a legitimate power is being abused. We hold, therefore, that censorship of films, including prior restraint, is justified under our constitution (Vasudev, 1978). The enquiry committee on film censorship in 1968, known as the Khosla Committee, in its report submitted in 1969, said, in the case of films Censorship can be deemed to be reasonable restrictions on the right of freedom of expression. Provided that the nature and extent of this control or restriction is related to the maters mentioned in Article 19(2) of the Indian constitution. Censorship must be authorized by law, and must be confined within the limits permitted by law and the provisions of the constitution. To extend the scope of censorship to considerations of public taste and ban a mater which does not fall within the limits of the reasonable restrictions clause would not be legal(Vasudev,1979). As such, the legal boundaries of Artistic freedom and its limits are well settled. But, the issue beyond the legal framework, which comes into the fore in any discussion of the moral basis of cinema censorship, is its social impact. Social Impacts of Films Any discussion on films and society confronts a vital question dose cinemas have any impact on the society. There are two schools of thought on this issue among film makers. One line of thinking believe that films can never affect or reform the social body or the events taking place within it, but the other believes that the medium does have a direct or indirect impact on social streams, even though it may not be immediately perceptible. The former cites the example that just after a couple of excellent anti-war films were exhibited, the second world war engulfed humanity hence cinema cannot and should not offer any solutions for social problems raised by its writer and directors, by its content and style. The mere exposition of the problem is enough and there ends cinemas artistic obligation as well as compulsion. The later, however, stretches cinemas role further to promote a thought process and line of action where by the viewers are provoked into trying a change for the better. F ilms, which talked directly and movingly about the wrongs of society, go on to influence it and shape it along better lines. The most important contribution of cinema to society is that by sheer usage it has grown to be a standard reference for most kinds of questions and situations, where elementary knowledge and practice are needed (Rangoonwalla, 1995:7). The mass mind picks up such points largely and stores them in some mental corner, to be reactivated while seeking or giving answers and guidance. Some of the life patterns and conclusions propagated by them could be having social repercussions below the outer of everyday life. Violence, crime and sex are made to look easy and frivolous, without much of retribution to follow. The magic of cinema is virtually unfathomable. The very mention of cinema conjures up a rainbow of captivating images. A vital aspect of Indian cinema is its unifying character. The Indian films have been subtly albeit consistently promoting the ideas of national integration and communal harmony. A part of the socio-economic cultural transformation can be attributed to the cinema as films usually generate social mobility, fluidity and an overall sense of oneness among people of different backgrounds (Rangoonwalla, 1995:7).The society is ripe with cases of crimes and criminals being emulated from the screen and so also the attitude to suicide as a way of dejection, mostly in love. Fashion including smoking and drinking, in many cases, are inspired from cinema characters. The vast fan followings of stars like Rajesh Khanna, Amitabh Bachhan, Mithun Chatkrabothy are eloquent testimony to the social impacts of films. A study by Dr. Sativa Bhakry shows that Cinema can play both positive as well as negative roles in society. It can have positive impacts in terms of providing entertainment, enhancing information and knowledge, sensitizing people about urgent issues of society, in creating sociability and offering catharsis. It offers release from tensions of daily life. Cinema can also play an equally negative role in teaching wrong values, generating social and sexual violence and crime, providing escape from reality into a dream world of fantasy instead of facing up to the problems of life, encouraging adoption of destructive role models and in encouraging cynicism about social institutions (Bhakhry, 1995:71-76). VI. Philosophical Foundations of Cinema Censorship Platos polemics of art and artists urged strict censorship of the arts because of their influence on moulding peoples characters (Rufus, 2010). Using his theory of forms, Plato claimed that artists and poets couldnt usually explain their works; as they are seized by irrational inspiration, a sort of divine madness (Bruce, 1998). Much of his writings reflect the belief that the vital opinions of the community could be shaped by law and that men could be penalized for saying things that offended public sensibilities, undermined common morality, or subverted the institutions of the community (Jowett, 2010). Acclaimed film critic and a spiritual champion of the right to freedom of expression, Noel Burch (1973) approved the censorship mechanism when he claimed I doubt if anybody will advocate freedom from interference of the state machinery to be extended to the commercial exploitation of a powerful medium of expression and entertainment like cinema. One can imagine the results if an unbridled commercial cinema is allowed to cater to the lowest common denominator of popular taste, especially in a country which after two centuries of political domination , is still suffering from confusion and debasement of cultural values. Freedom of expression cannot, and should not be interpreted as a license for the cinemagnates to make money by pandering to and thereby propagating, shoddy and vulgar taste. While emphasizing the role of cinema as a vehicle of modernism, Indias first Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru has also advocated some amount of social control to ward off its bad effects (Vasudev, 1978:107). Nehrus response to a public petition urging him to curb the evil influences of films not only brought the citizenry within the domain of film censorship but also legitimised their exercise of power. Tanuja Chandra claims that the artists have every right to give expression to the work of art and viewers have an equal right to reject it, if they do not like it either in part or whole. Therefore, cinema like other potent media, such as press, drama and fiction should be left under the common law. The entertainment part of cinema, she argues is of much important than the emotional part. But, it seems, the Indian society has still miles to go before accepting this argument. Veteran actor turned Member of Parliament Satrughna Sinha claims that in a country like India films reach the widest possible and most diversified audience. As a medium of mass communication it can exercise the most tremendous and potent influence on the public. The rampant use of blatant sex and gruesome violence (as commodities for sale by the producers) can terribly shake a nation; the ruinous elements can easily shatter the society before the common law can give protection. As such censorship cannot be unreas onable, if it is within limits (TOI, 2006). Sinha disagrees with Tanuja Chandras suggestion that it should be left to the public to decide what to see and what not and says it cannot be left entirely to the public, this way even blue films could be fair game.(Thapar, 1998). Even he rejects former Censor Board chief Vijay Anands suggestion to replace the system of cuts with ratings and claims that replacing the present system of cuts with ratings will reduce our Technicolor cinema into blue films (Sengupta, 2002). John Dayal Claims that more and more people, especially the younger, look forward to watch the blatant display of sex and violence on the screen. If this virus is allowed to the artery of our national blood, the society will be infested with unruly elements with hardly any care for our social values and traditional tenets, which will eventually lead to chaos and anarchy in the society. Curbs are, therefore, necessary to protect the moral health of the nation and to ensure that cinema does not hurt the sensibilities or interests of the extraordinarily heterogeneous people that constitute the Indian nation (Dayal, 1987:61). Acclaimed film critic Nikhat Kazmi finds no harm in showing a couple kissing as a mark of love and affection, because rapes and murders are not caused only because of films; rather they are the prime instincts of belligerence and sex that are inherent in every human being. She claims that censorship is irrelevant in the present age when cyber space offers its unlimited frontiers at the click of a mouse (Kazmi, 2002). When satellite television brings it all unhindered into the bedroom itself, censorship has virtually nothing to do with the Indian Cinema. Responding to the demands of the digital era, many nations have, in fact, repealed their obscenity laws and have dropped legal barriers against pornography for adults. Supporting these arguments, Tanuja Chandra, an acclaimed film producer in India, terms the Indian censorship guidelines totally redundant. She says the censor rule book, a relic of British colonialism, is completely outdated, it sticks out like a priest who tries to cur b freedom of expression with a ruler in his hands(Kazmi,2002). Citing the censor board decisions as irrational and inconsistent, some film makers claim that at times the censors object to sex, at times to violence and at times even to something as ridiculous as a woman smoking a cigarette (Jha, 1999). Hinting at the vulnerability of the censors, veteran film actor, producer and director Dev Anand says that the Censor Boards limited authority and accountability to the central government, in fact, leads to its play-safe attitude. He opined that the censor board is a puppet in the hands of the central governmentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ guidelines seems to change every time a government changes (Jha, 1999). Opposing censorship in any form, he argue that every clipping in a film is condemnable and only rating is permissible as in the Hollywood film industry. These conflicting arguments and the apparent vertical split in the film industry shows our state of confusion and failure in taking a categorical position on the issue. Perhaps, the country has not yet reached a stage where censorship in cinema is to be scrapped altogether. The safest choice, therefore, is to take appropriate steps to make our censor mechanism more effective rather than attempting to abolish it. VII. Research Design and Methods Analysing a complex issue like film censorship demands a multidisciplinary approach. Constitutional and legal provisions, judgements of Supreme Court and High Courts, observations of various committees and commissions on limits of the rights
Sunday, January 19, 2020
They were black men who had a dream, but never lived to see it fulfilled. One was a man who spoke out to all humanity, but the world was not yet ready for his peaceful words. "I have a dream, a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed... that all men are created equal." (Martin Luther King) The other, a man who spoke of a violent revolution, which would bring about radical change for the black race. "Anything you can think of that you want to change right now, the only way you can do it is with a ballot or a bullet. And if you're not ready to get involved with either one of those, you are satisfied with the status quo. That means we'll have to change you." (Malcom X) While Martin Luther King promoted non-violence, civil rights, and the end to racial segregation, a man of the name of Malcom X dreamed of a separate nation. Martin Luther King, Jr. was the conscience of his generation. A Southerner, a black man, he gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down. From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to free all people from the bondage of separation and injustice, he wrung his eloquent statement of what America could be. (Ansboro, pg.1) An American clergyman and a Nobel Peace Prize winner, he was one of the principle leaders of the American Civil Rights Movement and a prominent advocate of nonviolent protest. King's challenges to segregation and racial discrimination in the 1950's and 1960's, helped convince many white Americans to support the cause of civil rights in the United States. After his assassination in 1968, King became the symbol of protest in the struggle for racial justice. ("King, Martin Luther, Jr.," pg. 1) In 1964, Malcom X founded an organization called "The Muslim Mosque, Inc. In an interview conducted by A.B. Spellman on March 19, 1964, Malcom speaks of his goals for this organization. "The Muslim Mosque, Inc. will have as its religious base the religion of Islam, which will be designed to propagate the moral reformations necesary to up the level of the so-called Negro community by eliminating the vices and other evils that destroy the moral fiber of the community. But the political philosophy of the Muslim Mosque will be black nationalism, as well as the social and economic philosophies.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Price: Tata Sky has offered competitive pricing but has been on the higher end and its due to promotional campaigns it has added in incentives leading to increase in customer base. In search of newer audiences in smaller towns, DTH operator Tata Sky is introducing a new Rs 99 package Ã¢â¬â Super Hit Pack 2. Customer Services: Tata sky offers an excellent website and dedicated customer line. They have the concept of registered mobile number providing easy communication. But their Customer service lines are always busy and the waiting period is usually very long. This may be an irritant for existing customers. 6 3. Reception: The reception is usually excellent in comparison to existing cable TV. But during monsoons and Cloudy days they are affected. The rate of signal distortion is more for Community dishes in comparison to Individual dishes. This technical problem should be sorted. 4. Program Choices: After litigations, Tata sky is able to offer huge bouquet of channels but it is still less compared to the Cable TV. They should ensure extensive program choices to induce switching from Cable to DTH 5. New Technology: Tata sky Plus is an initiative in this direction. Various services under Active are part of this Technology game. Being a interactive and dynamic offering would increase its appeal. 6. Technical Support: Technical support system of Tata sky is well establishes. If a 24 hrs limit can be provided for all complaints and work on Ã¢â¬ËholidaysÃ¢â¬â¢ when people are generally home could be sold as a USP. Tata Sky as a product has evolved from the time to inception. Further to enhance the product, new services and technologies can be imbibed like: 1. Common Dish per house for Multiple Television sets 2. Combined Product with Television Ã¢â¬â Rural Areas , especially and Niche Segment Targeting if Combined with LCDs 3. Connectivity with other digital Monitors like Laptops for Commercial Usage 4. Guide can be displayed in Multiple Regional Languages 5. Voice over in Multiple Languages (Currently limited availability in for some programs) 6. Interactive Video Games (with consol) 7. Inclusion of Radio Reception. Development of Visual Radio service. 8. Variety in Movie Listing with Bollywood, Hollywood and Regional Channels 9. Special channels for Songs Request like Jukebox could be launched 10. Stock Market related interactive service on Active 7 Price Competition has increased may fold with completion providing freebies and slashing prices. The following price related strategies could be adopted, which may lead to a short term loss but a medium term break even and profit: 1. Free Set Top: Following the line of Dish TV, Set top Boxes can be given free while ensuring lock in by providing base pack free for limited time duration, thus inducing update to next level. 2. Lock in of 1 year: Ensure long term lock ins by providing incentives for pre payment of long term charges. Continue with current strategy of providing 2 months free on payment of 10 months services. 3. Multiple Connections: Provide discounts for consumers buying second Tata Sky Connection (up to 50% off) 4. Encourage References: Provide discounts on Monthly charges if reference from existing consumer becomes a new customer. 5. Regional Disparity: Provide free regional packs in local areas to ensure switch from Cable TV to DTH service, i. e. provide free south Jumbo pack for customers in all Southern States. 6. Community Dish: Provide Incentives in the form of Free Months charges for first 3-6 months and reduce the Installation charges per flat.